To alleviate worldwide warming, we have to manage nitrous oxide emissions. A recent research by the University of Eastern Finland, the University of Helsinki and the Natural Resources Institute Finland offers brand-new understanding on nitrous oxide emissions and reveals that there can be substantial mistakes in the conventional emission measurements.
A significant part of the carbon dioxide getting in the atmosphere originates from the use of fossil fuels however microbial activities in our environment, particularly in soils, are mostly accountable for nitrous oxide emissions. Microbial nitrous oxide production is boosted by an increase in the availability of nitrogen in soil.
Measuring nitrous oxide emissions from soils is demanding because the emissions have large spatial and temporal variation. Typically, various chamber strategies have been used to determine these emissions. For the purpose, chambers with a size of about 50 cm are set on the soil surface area and emissions are approximated from the gas collected in the chambers within a brief measurement duration (30 -60 minutes). Computer controlled chambers can also be utilized to measure emissions, e.g., for every single hour. However, it is possible to use only a minimal number of chambers at a website, such as a farming field. This indicates that the spatial variation in laughing gas emissions cannot be properly determined triggering inaccuracies in the emission computations. Chambers can also cause bias in emissions because environmental conditions within chambers differ from those of natural conditions. New innovations are now available to the researchers to get rid of the problems connected with chambers. The eddy covariance approach utilizes accurate laser spectrometry for estimating nitrous oxide emissions and allows continuous measurements within an area of numerous hundred meters. With this technique, temporal and spatial variations in emissions are balanced over the whole location. Because no chambers are required, the measurement system does not alter the ecological conditions and associated predisposition in the emissions is avoided.
Scientists from the University of Eastern Finland, the University of Helsinki and the Natural Resources Institute Finland used the eddy covariance method integrated with the most-modern laser innovation in the market to determine nitrous oxide emissions from a field where a bioenergy crop was cultivated (Maaninka, Eastern Finland). Nitrous oxide emissions were high during this time. Excluding the diurnal variation in nitrous oxide emissions causes inaccuracies in the annual emission quotes.
These results released in the journal, Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing Group), have international significance. The outcomes support the development of dependable measuring approaches for nitrous oxide emissions and enhance our understanding of the laughing gas emission mechanisms and their controlling elements. Competition for soil nitrogen between plants and microorganisms has an essential role for the nitrous production in the soil. When soil nitrogen accessibility is low, laughing gas emissions are higher during night- time than throughout daytime because plants do not consume soil nitrogen in the evening and more nitrogen is readily available for microorganisms and their laughing gas production. Steady isotope try outs labelled nitrogen fertilizer additions confirmed the higher night time emissions observed by the eddy covariance technique.
The research shows how advances in measuring innovation support the generation of new understanding had to acquire reputable emission quotes and to much better comprehend the systems behind greenhouse gas production in the soil. The understanding of the managing aspects behind the emissions permits the use of cultivation approaches with low greenhouse gas emissions. The developing bio economy requires such growing practices for biomass production. This research was enabled by combining the knowhow and technological centers of three leading Finnish organizations in greenhouse emission research studies.